Brief introduction to Zhao Zhen, Renzong of Song Dynasty-看世界

Brief introduction to Zhao Zhen, Renzong of Song Dynasty


Zhao Zhen, Renzong of Song Dynasty (1010-1063), the fourth generation of the Northern Song Dynasty (1023-1063). The sixth son, who was born in the third year of Zhongda Xiangfu (1010), became the crown prince in 1018 and was named Zhao Zhen. In 1023, he became the emperor at the age of 13. He died at Bianliang palace in 1063, aged 53. Forty one years in office. When he was in power, he faced the situation of bureaucratic expansion. There were many redundant officials and soldiers, but the foreign war was defeated again and again. Although Xixia had become a minister to Song Dynasty, the border crisis had not been eliminated. Later, although the "Qingli New Deal" was once implemented, it failed to overcome all the achievements. Its mausoleum is Yongzhao mausoleum. The posthumous title is ti Tian FA, Dao Ji Gong, Quan de Shen, Wen Sheng Wu, Rui Zhe, Ming Xiao emperor.

Song Renzong (1010-1063), namely Zhao Zhen, the son of Zhenzong. In the eighth year of Dazhong Xiangfu (1015), the prince of Shouchun was appointed, and in the second year of Tianxi (1018), the prince was appointed. The first year of Qianxing (1022) came to the throne.

In more than 10 years of the heavenly sage and Mingdao period, Zhang Xianxian was in charge. During his reign, science and culture developed to a certain extent in Song Dynasty, but various societies became more acute, land annexation became more and more serious. In the first year of Huangyou's reign (1049), the total number of the National Army increased to 1.4 million, reaching the peak of military training in the northern Song Dynasty. Military expenditure accounts for 78 / 10 of fiscal revenue. The number of officials is also about double that of the real ones. In the years of Kangding and Qingli, Xixia made several large-scale invasions, and the song army was defeated. After that, a peace agreement was made with Xixia to give Xixia a large amount of silver, silk and tea every year. He also humiliated Liao and asked for peace and increased the number of coins. Peasant uprisings, mutinies and ethnic resistance and struggle have lasted more than one year. In order to solve the ruling crisis, Renzong was appointed, Hanqi, Fubi and other officials in the reign of Qingli, trying to rectify the official management, which was called the new policy of Qingli in history, but it was soon cancelled. Renzong was weak and incompetent. Although he had been in power for 42 years, he did nothing.

However, during the reign of emperor Renzong of Song Dynasty, the country was stable and peaceful, the economy was prosperous, science and technology and culture were greatly developed. During the reign of emperor Renzong, the government officially issued the earliest paper currency in the world - "guanjiaozi".

Emperor Renzong was generous, not extravagant, but also able to restrain himself, so he was praised by historians and politicians of all ages. Once, in the early autumn, officials presented clams. Renzong asked where he got it, and his officials replied that it had come from a long way. He asked how much it cost, and replied that there were 28 pieces in total, each of which was the backbone of the money. Renzong said, "I often warn you to save money. Now it costs 28000 yuan to eat a few clams. I can't eat them!" he didn't eat them either.

One day, when Renzong was working late at night, he was tired and hungry. He wanted to eat a bowl of hot mutton soup, but he was hungry and didn't say it. The next day, when the queen knew it, she advised him: "Your Majesty should work day and night, and take care of your body. If you want to eat mutton soup, you can command the chef at any time. How can you suffer from hunger?" Renzong said to the empress, "if I ask for Lamb Soup at any time in the palace, it will be regarded as a routine outside. If I eat lamb soup last night, the chef will kill it at night. Hundreds of them will be killed in a year, forming a rule. The number of slaughters in the future can't be counted. It's a bowl of food for me to create this evil rule, and it's also harmful to life and animals. I can't bear it. So I prefer to endure the hunger for a while."

Wang Su, the remonstrating official, once advised Renzong not to get close to women. Renzong replied, "recently, Wang de has indeed come to dedicate himself to me. Now I am in the palace, and I am very pleased. Let me keep her." Wang Su said, "I'm afraid your majesty is confused by women's color when I give you advice today." When Emperor Renzong heard this, he ordered that "Wang de should give each of the women he sent 300 Guan each, and send them out of the palace immediately, and report when they are done." At the end of the speech, he was still in tears. Wang Su said: "Your Majesty thinks that the minister's speech is right, and you don't have to deal with it in such a hurry. Since the women have entered the palace, it's better to send them away later. " Zhao Zhen said: "although I am an emperor, I also attach the same importance to feelings as the common people. If you keep them for a long time, you will not bear to send them away because of your deep feelings. "

One day, Renzong retreated to his bedroom. Because his head was itchy, he took off his hat without taking off his robe and called the eunuch to come in and comb his hair. When the eunuch combed his hair, he saw a memorial in Renzong's arms and asked, "what Memorial has your majesty received?" Renzong said that the remonstrating officials suggested reducing the number of palace maids and servants. The eunuch said: "there are Kabuki dancers in the minister's house. Once they are promoted, they will be added.". There are not many attendants, but they suggest to reduce them. It's not too much! "Renzong didn't have an interface. The eunuch also asked, "are you ready to take their suggestions?" Renzong said, "of course I will take the suggestions of remonstrating officials." The eunuch, believing that he had always been favored by the emperor, said discontentedly, "if it is adopted, please take slaves as the first one to be cut down." When Renzong heard this, he immediately stood up and called for the eunuch in charge to come in and check according to the roster, reducing 29 palace people and the eunuch combing their hair out of the palace. Later, the queen asked, "the eunuch comb is your Majesty's close friend for many years, not an extra person. Why cut him down?" "Renzong said:" he advised me to refuse the advice of the counsellor, how can I keep this kind of people around

During his time as a censor and remonstrating officer, Bao Zheng repeatedly violated Yan's direct remonstrance, spitting and splashing on Renzong's face, but Renzong wiped his face with his sleeve and accepted his suggestion. Once, Duke Bao wanted to take off the post of Zhang zuoyao, the third secretary's envoy. The reason was that he was mediocre. Zhang was the uncle of emperor Renzong's beloved concubine. Emperor Renzong was in a bit of a dilemma. He thought of a way to let Zhang become an emissary. Bao Zheng was still unwilling to do so. His words were more intense. Emperor Renzong said angrily, "do you want to talk about Zhang zuoyao? How can we argue that a governor is a rough official? " Bao Zheng replied politely: "Jie Du emissary, Taizu and Taizong were all for it, not rough officials." Zhang finally failed to act as an emissary. Renzong returned to the palace and said to the imperial concubine, "you only know how to xuanhui emissary. (Xuanhui Emissary: according to history, Renzong was in a hurry to say that Jiedu emissary was xuanhui emissary). How do you know that Bao Zheng was the imperial history?"

"Benevolence" has always been the highest ideal of traditional politics. Before emperor Renzong of Song Dynasty, no emperor could use "benevolence" or "benevolence". After the news of Renzong's death came out, "when the capital stopped, the streets cried for days, even though beggars and children burned paper money and cried before Dani." The smoke of burning paper money in Luoyang is floating all over Luoyang City, and even the sky is dark. People in remote areas also mourn with filial hats.

Positive comments

Song Dynasty is the second open and tolerant period in Chinese history. Its root lies in emperor Taizu's emphasis on culture, suppression of military and magnanimity. After the unification of China, Zhao Kuangyin realized the transformation to civilian government by releasing the military power through a cup of wine. In particular, Zhao Kuangyin made a law, stipulating that he could not flog the minister in the court and not abuse the minister. The Song Dynasty was not prosperous, and it was more tolerant to scholars. To song Renzong Zhao Zhen succession, to carry forward this tradition to the largest. Zhao Zhen is fond of learning and worships Confucian classics. For the first time, he put the Analects, the University and the mean together to let students study, and started the "four books".

In the Song Dynasty, there were too many song people who praised and praised Renzong and his "Shengzhi", including Sima Guang, Zeng Gong, hu'anguo, Liu Guangzu, Zhou Bida, Yang Wanli, Wang Bi, Chen Junqing, Liu Kezhuang, Zhao Ruteng, Ye Shi, Wang Shipeng, etc. In the eyes of most people in Song Dynasty, "benevolence and patriarchal rule" is far beyond the "golden age of Kaiyuan". Song Renzong lived a frugal life. One day, he ate 28 crabs. When he learned that eating one crab cost 1000 yuan, he couldn't bear to eat it. [8]

In the fourth year of Jiayou (1059, four years before Zhao Zhen's death), the ministers headed by Prime Minister Fubi asked for his honorific title "Daren Zhizhi" five times in a row, but Zhao Zhen did not approve it. But after his death, he could not stop the ministers from giving him the title of "benevolence". Wang GUI, a scholar in the Imperial Academy, and other officials wrote posthumous titles to him, saying, "those who have heard the essence of the Yuan Dynasty are majestic, those who have helped all things but failed to reveal their traces, are recommended to be named heaven; those who have lived in Wangyang in the highest virtue and have no merit for all ages, have been established posthumously to the Emperor The emperor of ancient sages and sages in Weiqi calendar is not only known as the emperor of Ming and Qing Dynasties, but also as the successor. In the book of songs, it is said that "to protect the heaven, to keep the life of the heaven, to be silent". That is to say, the work of starting a business is the ancestor of virtue, and to keep virtue as the emperor, all of them respect the great righteousness. The first emperor honored his posthumous title, which was suitable for heaven and tin. He was called Shenwen, Shengwu, Mingxiao, emperor, and the temple Renzong

"Benevolence" is the highest evaluation of the emperor, "to be a king, it is only to be benevolent." In the history of Song Dynasty, the evaluation and praise of Renzong and its prosperous governance are as follows: "during the forty-two years of his reign, if the officials were lazy, they would ignore the people who were incomplete; if the criminal law was lax, most of the people who were allowed to break the prison were willing to do so. The country has no disadvantages and good fortune, but not enough to accumulate the body of governing the world; the dynasty has no villain, but not enough to win the spirit of good. The emperor and his officials were compassionate and loyal to each other, which was the foundation of the Song Dynasty for more than three hundred years. As soon as the descendants straighten out what they have done, they will tame the chaos. "Biography" said: "as a gentleman, stop at benevolence." There is no shame in the emperor's sincerity. "

In this way, his ministers eulogized "benevolence and prosperity": in the past forty-two years, it can be described as a great rule in China. Before Xihuang was stolen, it was impossible to find the details. Since the poetry and the book, it has not been as prosperous as this. "

Shao Bowen, a scholar in the Northern Song Dynasty, praised "benevolence and prosperity": Emperor Gaidi knew that it was the key to Governance: Ren Zafu, using the platform to remonstrate, fearing the heaven and loving the people, and observing the patriarchal system. At that time, Zaifu said Fubi, Hanqi and wenyanbo, and Taijian said Tangjie, Baozheng, simaguang, Fanzhen and lvyaoyun. Whirring, regarding Zhou Zhicheng and Kang as well as the literature and scenery of the Han Dynasty, there are all kinds of things, and those who have done so are the most prosperous in the Song Dynasty? "

Chen Shixi, a political commentator in the Northern Song Dynasty, cherishes the memory of "benevolence and prosperity": for more than 150 years, the Song Dynasty has been prosperous, known as peace, and has been serving the country for a long time. The people who have left behind are like emperor Renzong As a result, the governance of Qingli and Jiayou was very prosperous in this dynasty, far beyond the Han and Tang Dynasties, with three generations of wind. "

"Over 70 years after Song Dynasty's rise, the people did not know the soldiers and were rich enough to teach them. They were extremely blessed by heaven and scenery," said da Wenhao Tiansheng and Jingyou are the year of emperor Renzong of Song Dynasty. Even the prime minister who has no eyes said: "in the past, my benevolent father was in charge of the imperial court. There were five people in the world who were personally selected to advocate and discuss great ideas, which were recorded in the square book. The governance of Qingli and Jiayou can be divided into two parts: the Tang Dynasty and the Yu Dynasty, and the Shang Dynasty and the Zhou Dynasty Wei Jing, a famous person in the Southern Song Dynasty, also said that "the governance of Jiayou" could not reach the ancient times.

Negative evaluation

Wang Fuzhi criticized song Renzong's "no fixed aspiration". During the past 30 years, the talents were dethroned and the country's politics was reformed. One by one, one by one, one by one, can't be finished. The officials are not suitable for keeping, the people are not suitable for following. If the world is frightened, if you want to, if you stretch your neck and lift your toes, if you have different feelings, you may think about it If there is no fixed aspiration of the husband and the son of heaven, that is all. " [

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